作為隱喻的建築》推薦序

建築是一門歷史悠久的行業。自古以來,小至居所,大至城市,它的觸角無所不及。建築創作是藝術、也是技術,每一件建築作品往往代表一種理念與價值。而建築的營造更可能涉及了複雜的政治、社會與經濟的運作。

也難怪,建築經常被作為隱喻,從地基、樑柱、牆壁到屋瓦,每一個結構與部位均有其言詞與文化上的寓義。建築的形式與興衰,更往往被賦予多重的符號與想像。

在《作為隱喻的建築》一書中,柄谷行人將這個隱喻作為對西方哲學思想批判的濾鏡。從柏拉圖起始,以至近代後結構主義的論述,以建築作為隱喻的探索,讓我們重新認知西方哲學領域中世界觀的組織與建構,以及這些觀點如何反映在不同學科的論述,以及社會、政治與經濟的體制,甚至包括貨幣與信用等概念。

《作為隱喻的建築》作者:柄谷行人、譯者:林暉鈞,心靈工坊出版

誠如作者所言:這不是一本有關狹義建築的書,它與鋼筋水泥的實體建築並沒有太直接的關係。不過這本書的起始與英文版的出版,確實有受到建築領域的影響。包括日本建築大師磯崎新對現代主義批判給予柄谷行人的啟發,而作者也在後期參與了ANY (Architecture New York) 這個組織的會議,讓他目睹了九〇年代紐約建築領域與哲學思想的互動。

ANY這個組織在當時美國的建築領域中其實並非所謂的主流,然而由於紐約建築學界的強勢與地位,讓這個團體有了不凡的影響力。在現代主義崩敗、後現代主義流於形式與商業化,而當時又沒有其他得以取代的學派,ANY讓批判性的建築論述有了發展的縫隙,近代在世界建築舞台上崛起的幾位大師,不少都跟這個團體有所關聯。

然而,柄谷行人對這個組織也有所批判,他在本書的後記中寫著:「在建築家們的議論中,德希達與德勒茲的思想只不過是虛驕的裝飾品而已。十年的會議期間,他們一個接一個、不斷引進新的「思想」,卻沒有任何實際的成果」。更嚴重的是,他認為:「因為受到哲學言論的影響,他們(建築師)看不到自己在現實中真正所做的事」。

的確,哲學的概念在建築的操作中往往只是被形式化,或被作為合理化的工具。我本身做為幾位ANY成員所指導過的晚輩,記得當年在紐約求學的過程中,就對這些現象有著深刻的體會。當年建築解構主義者對後現代主義的批判,若順著本書的邏輯,即可被視為是「形式」上的紛爭,當解構主義者成為主流後,他們並沒有對建築或城市空間生產的體系進行挑戰或顛覆,反而是依附在慣性的結構上。

《作為隱喻的建築》一書的核心就是在探討當代社會運作背後的深層結構,以及個人與群體如何去回應、對抗與挑戰。當不同學科的形式主義取代了對現象的認知,我們如何挑戰與突破它的侷限?當「文本」成為自我指涉的體系,我們怎麼重新認識真實?當所謂的「人工城市」成為霸權,「自然城市」該如何被認知與挽救?

在這本書中,當建築被作為一種隱喻的同時,其實建築本身也被賦予某種意義上的投射。所謂的「建築」代表的是理性的、有秩序的結構體。而這個秩序本身就是一種結構,它是文化傳統與知識體系的產物。秩序本身就是一個具有排他性的概念,有秩序也就有秩序中無法被容許或內化的「亂象」。柄谷行人在書中所提及的「他者」,就是存在於這個秩序之外中的個體。對局外人而言,這個既有的秩序甚至不具有任何意義,「他者」的存在,本身就挑戰了這個秩序。

但秩序與結構不必然是單一的,在書中,柄谷行人用了建築學者亞力山大 (Christopher Alexander) 所提出的「網狀交叉」(semi-lattice) 這個概念,來闡述不同的系統與結構的可能性。有異於與「樹狀」的結構,在網狀交叉的體系中,城市可以有無數的子集(subsets)或單元,組合成複雜且微妙的生活系統。此外,柄谷行人也引用了包浩斯的案例:「一方面接受資本制經濟所帶來的技術與產品,同時卻也試圖對抗資本制經濟」、「包浩斯的內部包含了許多彼此對立的思想,是一個不斷處於「生成」狀態的、錯綜複雜的團體」、「它包含了社會主義之外的、多樣的要素」。

柄谷行人在二〇〇〇年成立了「新合作主義者運動」NAM (New Associationist Movement),這個組織在反對資本、國族與國家三合體的同時,也批判了過去革命運動所重蹈的階級結構,其反集權、去核心的理念與亞曆山大的「網狀交叉」與包浩斯內部彼此對立的思想,有著異曲同工之妙。

雖然《作為隱喻的建築》與建築設計並沒有直接的關係,但書中的許多討論確實對建築以及廣義的規劃設計領域有著不少的提示。除了上述「形式化」的詬病與秩序的排他性之外,還有所謂「生成」(becoming) 與「製造」(making) 之間的差別。柄谷行人指出:對柏拉圖來說,建築意味著一種對抗「生成」的態度,但他則認為實際的建築有一半的成分是屬於「生成」的,也就是偶然、多樣、不被支配的。生成與製造的分別,提示了我們在「設計」之外,還有其他不可被完全設計的變數與過程。

最後,這本書中還有一個值得反思的觀念,是所謂的內外之分。柄谷行人認為哥德爾從形式主義內部,證明其內在的破綻,但是這樣的做法並不能走出形式主義。對此,他提到維根斯坦在哲學的生涯中,曾有一段不同的路程,從事小學老師與建築師的工作,這段歷程讓維根斯坦得以從實踐倫理的方向,來對哲學論述進行質疑與批判。換言之,建築的社會實踐需要跨出疆界,需要有專業以外的視野與實踐,由內與外的審視,建築與規劃設計才能回應社會對它的期待,以及專業本身的社會責任。這個提示當然不僅是針對建築領域。

《作為隱喻的建築》一書提示著跨越疆界的重要性,柄谷行人在本書的後記中寫著:「作為隱喻的建築」這個主題下暗地裡思考的,其實是社會設計(design)的問題。從跨界的角度來看:當設計不再是專屬於建築師的職責,而社會改革不再僅限於行動者的努力,我們的社會與環境或許才有整體進步的可能,而介時建築也或許會有了新的隱喻。

作為隱喻的建築》作者:柄谷行人、譯者:林暉鈞,心靈工坊 (出版:2020年6月17日)

http://www.psygarden.com.tw/book.php?func=visit&bookid=MjAyMDA2MDQxMzEzMjE=


This is a transcript of a talk given at the “Putting Public Space in its Place,” a Harvard Conference on Public Space, March 7–8, 2013. The presentation was a part of a session titled “Public Space, Democracy, and Equality: For the People, By the People, Of the People?” joined also by Maurice Cox and Peter Marcuse.

Occupy Wall Street protest at Zuccotti Park before the protesters were evicted. (Photo by Jeff Hou)

In the wake of Occupy Wall Street, there has been extensive discussion on the contemporary public space and the failure of society to support freedom of assembly and citizens’ right to the city. …


This series of articles represents the outcomes of a two-part webinar, titled Bottom-Up Resilience and hosted by APRU Plus in July 2020. Through a partnership between Pacific Rim Community Design Network and the APRU Sustainable Cities and Landscapes Hub, the discussion brought together a group of activists, organizers, and researchers across the region to critically reflect on their ongoing work in supporting the local communities during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Video recording from Day 2 of the Bottom-Up Resilience Webinar

Learning from Civil Society and Civic Resilience

What exactly can we learn from these different types of civil society responses during the pandemic? What do these cases tell…


This series of articles represents the outcomes of a two-part webinar, titled Bottom-Up Resilience and hosted by APRU Plus in July 2020. Through a partnership between Pacific Rim Community Design Network and the APRU Sustainable Cities and Landscapes Hub, the discussion brought together a group of activists, organizers, and researchers across the region to critically reflect on their ongoing work in supporting the local communities during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Cleaning workers in Hong Kong received masks from Fixing Hong Kong volunteers. (Photo courtesy of Fixing Hong Kong)

During the COVID-19 crisis in 2020, civil society responses including self-help and mutual aid have become critical to the survival of many individuals and communities, lending a lifeline to some of…


Public Space, in the Mirror of COVID-19

Since late January this year, life in Seattle has steadily descended into an unsettling and uncharted reality, like many other cities around the world. On January 21, the first coronavirus case in the United States was confirmed in Snohomish County, less than forty minutes away from the city center in Seattle by driving. On January 26, we received an email from the University of Washington (UW) where I teach saying that three students returning from Wuhan were being screened for the novel coronavirus.[1] …


Learning from Hong Kong’s 2019 Protests

Urban infrastructure and handmade signs: functions and meanings of public space transformed by guerrilla signs. (Photo by Jeff Hou)

The protests of 2019 in Hong Kong will no doubt be recognized as one of the most important chapters in the city’s history. Since June of 2019 and with no end in sight, the movement has stretched our imagination about the possibilities of social and political movements. It has challenged what is conceivable and practical in terms of tactics and organizational structures of a protest movement. It has redefined the common narratives of the Hong King society. It has pushed the boundaries and limits of human capacity. It has overturned many accepted norms in terms of how cities and societies…

Jeff Hou

I am a scholar-activist who explores bottom-up placemaking, public space and democracy, and civic urbanisms.

Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store